The Medias Shot At Redemption

Aside all the past sexism and gender discrimination in the media, the industry is taking a slow, but steady stride towards an equality driven future. Although many had already believed that equality had been reached, and there was no need for a feminist movement, the media industry, and many others, have proven that further action has to be taken for this to be a reality. Many have already begun the advance towards equality in the media, like organisations such as; Alliance For Women In The Media, Women In Media (A MEAA Initiative), ESPN, and even with much surprise, Fox Sports has had a chance at redemption with its new all female panel rugby league show. With major organisations pioneering equality within the media, other organisations and individuals are sure to follow.

There are a few specific organisations that are in place to support women’s success and their rights in harsh industries environments such as media and journalism. Such organisations include; Alliance For Women In The Media and Women In Media, both organisations have stated to be “committed to supporting women across all media segments, to expand networks, educate and celebrate accomplishments” (Women In Media, 2016). These kinds of organisations show support for feminism and encourage a range of diversity and equality throughout all workplace environments.

What is truly a remarkable accomplishment for the progress of equality in the media, is Fox Sports new all female rugby league show, ‘League Life’. Fox News proved to be a huge stump for gender equality within the media, as demonstrated by the many allegations, sexual assault and harassment cases, but the media giant has taken a step towards redemption with is all female sports show. What is particularly empowering about Fox Sports all female rugby league show, is that many would have anticipated that women in sports journalism would have been the one of the last steps towards equality in the media. On the panel of “‘League Life’ will have Yvonne Sampson, Lara Pitt, Jessica Yates and Hannah Hollis discuss the key issues within the game and at grassroots level”. Lara Pitt discussed the steady progress for females in the media and journalism industry as she stated, “There were no female presenters in league until I started in 2012 … now we have an increase involvement in women”.

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ESPN is another sports media giant who are making significant progress on the front of gender equality in journalism. ESPN recently announced; “Samantha Ponder will officially be taking over as the hostess of the networks “Sunday NFL Countdown.” This announcement proves historical for gender equality within the media, as “no woman has ever hosted this show in its 32 years of existence until now” (Dayley, 2017). In pervious years, women had been said to be “trespassing” when they would speak out in categories that are predominately male (Datta, 2016), such as sport, but Ponder’s promotion proves that a steady change is taking play. Being a successful female journalist proved already difficult enough, but ESPN have demonstrated remarkable equality in promoting a female lead in a category that has been male dominated.

Although, historically, females in the media and journalism industry have endured sexism, sexual harassment, and gender discrimination, a steady progression towards equality seems to be taking place.

 

References:

Riccio, 2017, Fox Sports new rugby league channel will boast an all-female panel show, Daily Telegraph, Available From: < http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/sport/swoop/fox-sports-new-rugby-league-channel-will-boast-an-allfemale-panel-show/news-story/a40394224bbb34d45a2cdab437716eb4 > Viewed 19th August 2017

Daley, 2017, ESPN ponders the future of female sports journalism, The Stylus, Available From: < http://www.brockportstylus.org/news/article/current/2017/03/28/100242/espn-ponders-the-future-of-female-sports-journalism > Viewed 19th August 2017

Madkour, 2017, Women in sports media cite progress, obstacles, Sports Business Daily, Available From: < http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2017/03/06/Opinion/From-The-Executive-Editor.aspx > Viewed 19th August 2017

Na., 2016, Winners announced: 2016 Freelance, Women’s Leadership, Young Journalist awards and Jacoby-Walkley Scholarship, The Walkley Foundation, Available From: < http://www.walkleys.com/winners-announced-2016-freelance-womens-leadership-young-journalist-awards-and-jacoby-walkley-scholarship/ > Viewed 19th August 2017

Datta, 2016, ‘Belling the trolls: free expression, online abuse and gender’, Open Democracy, Available From: < https://www.opendemocracy.net/bishakha-datta/belling-trolls-free-expression-online-abuse-and-gender > Viewed 19th August 2017

Endong, FC 2016, ‘The Female Media Producer as an Advocate of Women’s Empowerment in Nigeria: The Cross River State Experience’, Gender Studies (1583-980X), 15, 1, pp. 167-182, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 August 2017.

De-Miguel, R, Hanitzsch, T, Parratt, S, & Berganza, R 2017, ‘WOMEN JOURNALISTS IN SPAIN: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE GENDER GAP’, El Profesional De La Información, 26, 3, pp. 497-506, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 August 2017.

Understanding Autoethnogrophy

As described in the text; Autoethnography: An Overview, “Autoethnography is an approach to research and writing that seeks to describe and systematically analyze (graphy) personal experience (auto) in order to understand cultural experience (ethno)” (ELLIS, 2004; HOLMAN JONES, 2005). To further divulge into a deeper understanding of autoethnography and its history. I will attempt to give a reconstructed definition in my own words, and look towards how I will employ its use in my investigation into k-pop.

Autoethnography places much more emphasis on ones sense of self and personal experiences to accommodate “subjectivity, emotionality, and the researcher’s influence on research, rather than hiding from these matters or assuming they don’t exist.” This methodology was constructed because of sterile research practices that would generally bring harm and exploitation to the culture being studied; as opposed to this ‘outsider looking in’ point of view, autoethnographic researches become apart of the research and use their personal experience to understand the culture.

Autoethnography can be argued as a more compelling form of research, as it is a form of storytelling, reading an autobiography of the ethnographic works. You follow the story of these people’s lives and explore a culture through them, a whole array of different perspectives will come into play for each who choses to engage with the works, due to personal experiences.

The idea of immersing yourself so deeply into research, that you in fact utilise your personal life and sense of self as apart of the research, is in some way concerning to me. I completely agree in the idea of a more empathetic and fragile method of research, in comparison to previous exploitive methods, but to be so involved seems as though bias would be unavoidable.

Aside the bias, I do see many more positives to autoethnographic research. In order to study a culture, which is made up of social and emotional behaviour, one has to be emotionally invested, not sterile and emotionally absent from the study. But again, does this mean that because no two people are the same in terms of emotional intelligence or personality, that if multiple autoethnographers studies were conducted on the one culture, then multiple conclusions would be drawn?

I believe that autoethnographic will be a challenging task for myself, as this is a very different type of research and all my life, have been taught differently – make observations, not by getting involved. Investigating foreign cultural norms, I would just compare them to my own, but truly, how else does one best understand a culture, if not to be immersed in it? I am interested to see how far the methodology of autoethnography will get me when I begin investigation the cultural differences between western pop, and k-pop. The differences are evident, but investigating the roots of the cultural differences and personalising the research will prove interesting.

 

References:

Sarah, W 2006, ‘An Autoethnography on Learning About Autoethnography’, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol 5, Iss 2, Pp 146-160 (2006), no. 2, p. 146. [16 August 2017].

Carolyn, E, Tony E., A, & Arthur P., B 2015, ‘AUTOETHNOGRAPHY: AN OVERVIEW’, Astrolabio: Nueva Época, Vol 0, Iss 14, Pp 249-273 (2015), no. 14, p. 249

Lie, J 2012, ‘What Is the K in K-pop? South Korean Popular Music, the Culture Industry, and National Identity’, Korea Observer, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 339-363.

Gender Inequality In Journalism Media

Inequality is accurately depicted as “social or economic disparity”. Inequality is demonstrated when two individuals are not seen as equals, and as a result of this, one is given opportunities that the other will not receive. Examples of such include; wealth, race, culture, religion, and gender. What this case study aims to discuss is the inequality between genders, in particularly in global journalism. Although gender inequality has come far from what it was 50 years ago, females are still “discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market, etc.—with negative consequences for development of their capabilities and their freedom of choice (Human Development Reports, 2016).” Specific areas where equality tends to be lacking have been identified in a study by Kate Jenkins (2017, Davey). The three key areas identified were; “gender economic security, leadership positions and violence against women”.

In recent years, with the uproar of feminism, many journalism outlets have been slowly restructuring to give more female workers leadership positions and other opportunities that weren’t always considered. But in saying this, global journalism and media is still predominately dominated by males, with females taking stereotypical roles of fashion and beauty. Females have been found to represent the majority of journalists in news about “female politicians, birth control, fertility, sterilization and abortion; family relations; and a basket of topics that include beauty contests, modelling, fashion, and cosmetic surgery, in which two thirds of the subjects depicted in media coverage were women” (Oakford, 2015).

This case study aims to present examples of gender inequality and sexism in journalism media, and looks to examine its effects of inequality in global media. One example that is particularly disturbing is gender inequality/sexism at Fox News. The network is notorious for sexual harassment allegations, and on air sexism.

This YouTube video demonstrates the extent of sexism in the Fox News environment: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEoWSaM61NI

Just recently Fox News’s Bill O’Reilly “had paid out $13 million to five women in exchange for their silence on allegations of sexual harassment” (Ali, 2017).

And the sexism allegations towards members of Fox News only get worse, “just a year ago, saw former Fox News CEO Roger Ailes accused, repeatedly, of attempting to leverage his power to solicit sex from, not to mention harass and even reportedly try to assault, female co-workers” (Cheung, 2017).

Another story comes from Ten News’s Tracey Spicer, in her new book Good Girl Stripped Bare, where she discussed her difficult time as a female in the media and journalism industry. She discussed the emphasis on appearance and essentially sexualising the news; “I was told to stick my chest out more to show the audience my best ‘assets’. Bear in mind this is when we are reading the news, we are talking about the horrific things that are happening in Syria, we are told we must look more beautiful to tell the audience that” (ABC News, 2017).

Sexism and gender inequality within the media is a topic that isn’t discussed enough, many believe that feminism is ridiculous and a movement of the past, but it is real and present because it is something that is currently happening in our society throughout all kinds of professions.

To shock you into reality, “there are fewer women in top roles than there are men called John, Peter or David; CEOs and chairs of ASX 200 companies” (ABC News, 2017):Screen Shot 2017-08-09 at 3.21.09 PM.png

 

References:

Oakford, 2015, Gender Equality is Still a Huge Problem in the Global News Media, Vice News, Available From: < https://news.vice.com/article/gender-equality-is-still-a-huge-problem-in-the-global-news-media > (Viewed 7th August 2017)

 

Gaines-Ross, 2015, When the Media Covers Gender Inequality, the C-Suite Listens, Harvard Business Review, Available From: < https://hbr.org/2015/10/when-the-media-covers-gender-inequality-the-c-suite-listens > (Viewed 7th August 2017)

 

Morris, 2016, A balanced media? Not when it comes to gender, ABC News, Available From: < http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-03-08/morris-a-balanced-media-not-when-it-comes-to-gender/7228262 > (Viewed 8th August 2017)

 

n.a, 2016, United Nations Development Programme: Human Development Reports, Available From: < http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/gender-inequality-index-gii > (Viewed 8th August 2017)

 

Davey, 2017, Australian report finds disturbing evidence of gender inequality, The Guardian, Available From: < https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/mar/08/australian-women-display-tremendous-resilience-in-face-of-gender-inequality-kate-jenkins-finds > (Viewed 8th August 2017)

 

Mediamatters4america, 2015, “70 Awful Displays Of Sexism On Fox News”, [Video], Available From, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEoWSaM61NI > (Viewed 8th August 2017)

 

Ali, 2017, Scandal, sexism and the role of women at Fox News, Los Angeles Times, Available From: < http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/tv/la-et-st-bill-oreilly-sexual-harrassment-fox-news-women-20170405-story.html > (Viewed 8th August 2017)

 

Cheung, 2017, Who is Cleaning Up Fox News Legacy of Systemic Sexism? A Slew of Female Executives, Mediaite, Available From: < https://www.mediaite.com/online/who-is-cleaning-up-fox-news-legacy-of-systemic-sexism-a-slew-of-female-executives/ > (Viewed 8th August 2017)

 

n.a, 2017, ABC News, Available From, < http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-05-01/tracey-spicer-fights-back-against-sexism-in-media/8486446 > (Viewed 8th August 2017)

Godzilla – For The First Time

Today I watched the original 1954 Godzilla film, and it was very interesting.

To look at this film from an autoethnographic perspective, my background is very much Australian, and before that English, so it’s easy to say that this style of film isn’t the typical kind of movie that I would elect to watch. I am very used to western films and I have grown quite accustom to them, I am from a very small family and in saying that, there is not much cultural diversity. This essential background of my culture and viewing habits might shed light to why I feel the way I do about the original Japanese 1954 Godzilla film.

Honestly, I’m really just not a huge fan of the Monster genre, any of the Godzilla films are ones that I wouldn’t choose to watch.

I have only really seen snippets of the modern Godzilla remakes, so I didn’t really know a lot of the story line or the characters, but something that I didn’t expect from an older film, was a strong female protagonist. This was a pleasant surprise, and something that I really admired about the film. The original Japanese Godzilla (compared to the scenes of the western remakes that I have seen) also demonstrates much more respect between characters.

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To my surprise, I did enjoy the plot and was very captivated towards the end when solution (the ‘oxygen liquefier’) was debated. I didn’t exactly start that interested, I am very used to modern films, and the ‘special’ effects of 1954 weren’t really that ‘special’ compared to what I’m used to. Technology has come a long way, so that did really distract the initial engagement from me. But after a slow start, when the plot started to thicken, I surprisingly found myself eager to see what happened.

Something that was brought to may attention, that I didn’t entirely realise when I watched the film, was the Japanese history and controversy that was represented by Godzilla and the destruction caused by the monster. I believe that my westernised background shadowed me from connecting Japans history with the plot. Identifying Godzilla with the Hiroshima atomic bomb; to have an almost unstoppable monster portray the similar destruction that the atomic bomb caused in 1945 was very effective in terms of engagement. The film “posed deliberately inflammatory questions about the balance of postwar power and the development of nuclear energy”

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The connecting themes between the Hiroshima devastation and Godzilla were not what I was expecting, but it effectively engages the audience with the horrific events of Hiroshima 1945.

 

References:

Martin, 2014, Godzilla: why the Japanese original is no joke, ‘The Telegraph’, Available From: < http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/10788996/Godzilla-why-the-Japanese-original-is-no-joke.html > [Viewed 29th July 2017]

Progress Report – #foodporn

To briefly recap my digital artefact, I will be looking into the cyber cultures of the ever-evolving online food industry and specifically looking at how the social media platform, Instagram, has impacted it.

Tandoh (2016) discusses the emerging value and relevance that food cyber culture offers and “the way in which food has become social currency thanks to how we share and discuss it online. Most of us who document our meals online are amateurs, but there exists a sizeable, and hugely profitable, industry of professional food bloggers and Instagrammers, whose pristine food styling sets the tone for a whole aesthetic movement.”

Mostly this cyber culture can be addressed as – #foodporn.

I will be analysing the seemingly most popular sub cultures of #foodporn such as:

  • Vegan/ Clean eating
  • Dessert
  • Cheesy
  • Fast Food

I intend to explore the different aspects of what makes a post popular, such as:

  • Hashtags (#foodporn)
  • Quality of visual experience (photo or video)
  • Comments

The overall goal of this research project is to determine what sub genre of #foodporn is most popular, and what aspects contribute to its popularity.

My method of research involves the creation of an Instagram page (chocolate_vegetables) that is dedicated to all sub genres of #foodporn, and create original and relevant content for the page. I will post multiple images of each of the sub genres and include relevant captions and hashtags, which would potentially generate the most attention.

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I will be conducting this research project in close relation to the previous study of Mejova et al (2016), who investigated the social trend of #foodporn and what sub culture it was most closely related to. Throughout my research, included in the hashtags of each of the posts, will be #foodporn. The study by Mejova et al (2016) concluded that #foodporn “is often associated with high calorie and sugary foods such as cake and chocolate, it also often appears in a healthy context. The sentiment associated with #foodporn indicates that it is used to motivate healthy living”. I will use the previous findings as the hypothesis of my research, but my research will differ by assessing what specific aspects contribute to the popularity of specific sub genres.

So far, I have been constantly posting images about all the sub genres, in no particular order, but I have only compiled enough content necessary to make an assessment for the sub category, vegan. The research and contribution of content is continuous and swift, and the completion of the other sub categories all have their own timeline for completion, with desserts being the next in order. However, I have found it challenging to constantly produce relevant content, especially when I don’t eat all the food that I am researching. Although the time line for completion and analysis has not changed, this was an expected hurdle.

For the first part of my research into the realms of food cyber culture, has looked into the category for #vegan or #cleaneating food. This was my first choice of categories to come as it represents a part of my lifestyle and how I like to indulge in food; it was easy to create content when I eat this kind of food.

I have attempted to capture the vegan category with images of recipes that are of high quality, with occasional recipes included, and hash tags used appropriately, such as:

#vegan #veganlunch #veganfood #veganrecipes #vegetarian #vegetarianrecipes #vegetarianlife #vegetariano #cleaneating #food #foodporn #foodie

So far, the findings by Mejova et al (2016) only slightly correlate with the results from the digital artefact. The vegan cyber culture has been very highly followed and liked. I have slowly integrated other food genres into the Instagram account with hash tags relating to that particular genre, and so far the vegan category still prevails.

However, this cannot be deemed an informed, reliable, nor conclusive result as the experiment and research is not yet complete, only observations have been made at this stage. The study is still in the content creation stage and will not be ready for analysis until all genres of food cyber culture have been explored.

I have been looking at including different types of food among those specific sub categories. This being said, I have posted quite a large amount of other categories, particularly dessert posts, but they are so far all cookies (a favourite dessert option of mine), so until I have a large variety of foods for all sub categories, I could not count multiple posts of one type of food (cookies) as enough feedback. It is important to the reliability and validity of the experiment, that variety and consistency is employed throughout all the different sub categories.

The results so far have already enlightened me to the reality of food cyber culture; I did not expect such a following for vegan, over other sub categories. This research should determine the most appropriate and effective means by developing attention to an Instagram food post; and most importantly, which sub category of #foodporn is the most popular.

 

References:

Rebecca Smithers, 2016, “Hawaiian salad and watermelon juice ‘to be 2017 food trends’”, The Guardian, Available From: < https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/nov/02/hawaiian-salad-watermelon-juice-2017-food-trends-waitrose > [Viewed 27th April 2017]

Ruby Tandoh, 2016, “Click plate: how Instagram is changing the way we eat”, The Guardian, Available From: < https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/nov/02/click-plate-how-instagram-changing-way-we-eat-food > [Viewed 27th April 2017]

Mejova, Y, Abbar, S, & Haddadi, H 2016, ‘Fetishizing Food in Digital Age: #foodporn Around the World’, arXiv, EBSCOhost, (Viewed 20 March 2017)

Spence, C, Okajima, K, Cheok, AD, Petit, O, & Michel, C 2016, ‘Eating with our eyes: From visual hunger to digital satiation’,Brain and Cognition, vol. 110, no. Food for thought: The functional and neural mechanisms of food perception and choice, pp. 53-63. Available from: 10.1016/j.bandc.2015.08.006. (20 March 2017)

Bellevue, 2012, “Social Media Changing America’s Food Culture”, Natural Products Insider, Available From: < https://www.naturalproductsinsider.com/news/2012/02/social-media-changing-america-s-food-culture.aspx > (Viewed 17th March 2017)

Moreau, 2016, “What is Instagram, Anyways?”, Lifewire, Available From: < https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-instagram-3486316 > (Viewed 18th March 2017)

n.a, 2016, “American Fast Foods Recipes You Can Make At Home”, Lifehacker, Available From: < https://www.lifehacker.com.au/2016/02/7-american-fast-foods-recipes-you-can-make-at-home/ > (Viewed 19th March 2017)

Instagram Cyber Culture: #vegan

My digital artefact involves experimenting with instagram as a cyber culture for the food industry. My research aims to observe and determine what contributes to a successful food cyber culture social media, such as:

– Hashtags #foodporn
– Quality of the visual experience (photo or video)
– Different genres
– Range of genres per blog
– Tagging other food or Instagrammers
– Recipes included
– Frequency of posts

I have chosen to break down this research firstly into categories, and what works best for each. I will be assessing the most popular types of categories of #foodporn out of the following:

  • Vegan
  • Cheesy
  • Fast food
  • Dessert

I began my instagram account by following around 100 other relevant food accounts, to assert my space in the food industry cyber culture. The second step was to create original content relating to each category.

For the first part of my research into the realms of social media food cyber culture, has so far looked into the category for #vegan or #cleaneating food. This was my first choice of categories to come as it represents a part of my lifestyle and how I like to indulge in food; it was easy to create content when I eat this kind of food.

I have attempted to capture vegan images of recipes that are of high quality, with recipes included, and hash tags used appropriately, such as:

#vegan #veganlunch #veganfood #veganrecipes #vegetarian #vegetarianrecipes #vegetarianlife #vegetariano #cleaneating #food #foodporn #foodie

Screen Shot 2017-04-18 at 8.37.17 PM

So far the vegan cyber culture has been very highly followed and liked. I have slowly integrated other food genres into the instagram account with hash tags relating to that particular genre, and so far the vegan category still prevails. The experiment and research is not yet complete, only observations have been made at this stage. The study is still in the content creation stage and will not be ready for analysis until all genres of food cyber culture have been explored.

To keep up with the action, follow my instagram: https://www.instagram.com/chocolate_vegetables/

Animals In Zoos Or Prisons?

So today I decided that I wouldn’t mind going to prison, being told when to eat, sleep, clean, and live behind bars. I thought, WOW, what a great idea.

Jokes. But this is how what I imagine being the human equivalent for a zoo… not so great.

 

To say that animals don’t have any sort of emotional spectrum is just a joke, Bekoff (2007) states, “Many animals have rich and deep emotional lives and are clearly and overtly sentient”. Bekoff furthermore describes “evidence that animals such as cows, whose emotional lives are infrequently considered, can be moody, hold grudges and nurture friendships. It is not surprising that animals do not like being shocked, cut up, starved, chained, stunned, crammed into tiny cages, tied up, ripped away from family and friends, or isolated.”

So why do we continue to objectify animals? We objectify them as food, ‘bacon’ instead of ‘pig’, so we don’t feel bad about that, and so much goes to waste, so many slaughtered animals for wasted food.

We also objectify animals as entertainment in zoos..

Screen Shot 2017-03-31 at 8.17.32 AM.png

As children, we are educated and told that zoos are where they protect the animals; but little do we know that they would have had to rip these animals out of their natural habitat and from their families, and flown them to a foreign country that their species is not an occupant of, to be studied and used as a tool for amusement. It is sad that this is still the reality; I believe that in the next 70 years, zoos will no longer be around because of this ever-growing opinion and truthful education of the negative effects that zoos have on animals. In a recent survey, only 32% believed that zoos should remain for educational purposes; but after looking into the reasoning’s of this percentage, many are extremely uneducated and believe dramatically false information about zoos. A proper education about the habitats and ALL the effects that a zoo has on its animals, should be available to the public, so that children aren’t taught that visiting the zoo is ‘entertaining’.

 

I find that the only place for some moral justification in this topic, is for holding animals captive, in attempt to help a species to repopulate if they are nearing extinction, but even still, I am not 100% with this argument, because “the benefits to the overall species population do not compensate the individual animals for the negative effects of living in a zoo”. But to even look deeper into this argument, a recent “study found that extinction rates over the last century were 114 times higher than they would have been if humans had not been around. Fully 396 species have gone extinct in 100 years. Under normal conditions (that is, without the presence of humans) that loss should have taken 11,400 years.”

So how can we justify that locking sentient creatures up for “protection” is ethically OK? Humanity takes away and use up more resources than we need, and then feel bad about it once it’s done. I understand that not all man kind feel this negatively towards animals; but the fact is, that’s its still happening, we are playing god in something that is not to be tampered with, and were losing.

 

But to just lock animals up in a zoo, or for personal amusement or entertainment is just cruel. To be ripped away from your family as a child, not knowing what’s going on, or unable to communicate, and basically placed in the equivalent of a prison cell, but with strange creatures staring at you all day? What do you think this would do to the psyche? The negative affects overwhelmingly out weigh the positive.

 

So to conclude, I wouldn’t actually like to live in a prison at all, I like my family, and where I live, and I definitely agree that if someone stole me so that I could live in prison for the rest of my life, I would probably be depressed and want to kill everyone.

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Bekoff, M 2007, ‘Reflections on Animal Emotions and Beastly Virtues: Appreciating, Honoring and Respecting the Public Passions of Animals’, Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature & Culture, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 68-80. (Viewed 30th March 2017)

 

Comis, D, 2005 ‘Settling Doubts about Livestock Stress’, Agricultural Research (Viewed 30th March 2017)

 

n.a, 2014, “Animals For Entertainment”, BBC, Available From: < http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/entertainment_1.shtml > (Viewed 30th March 2017)

 

Casey, 2015, “Humans Are Behind The Mass Extinction Of Animals”, CBS News, Available From: < http://www.cbsnews.com/news/humans-are-behind-the-mass-extinction-of-animals/ > (Viewed 30th March 2017)

 

n.a, n.d, “Should animals be kept in zoos?”, Debate.org, Available From: < http://www.debate.org/opinions/should-animals-be-kept-in-zoos > (Viewed 30th March 2017)

 

n.a, n.d, “5 Secrets Zoos Don’t Want You To Know”, PETA Kids, Available From: < http://www.petakids.com/save-animals/zoos/ > (Viewed 30th March 2017)